Hesban in Global History

Polity Dates Epicenter Written Sources Archaeological Sources Hesban Architectural Evidence Hesban Ceramic Evidence Hesban Iconographic and Epigraphic Evidence Relevant Hesban Strata and other Evidence

Egyptian

Late Bronze to Iron I-IIA (ca. 1500-900 BC)

Thebes/Rameses/Tanis

Amun Temple at Karnak; Hasel 1998); Kitchen (1982; 1992); Redford (1982a; 1982b)

Tale of Sinuhe

None

None

Scarabs, Bes and Horus amulets found in late contexts

Strata 21-18 (possible periods of Egyptian presence during the 18th, 19th and 22nd dynasties)

Amorite Late Bronze Age Heshbon/ Madaba Plains Num 20:14-21: 30; 33:37-49; Dt 1-3, 29; Luke (1983); Jahn (2007) Unidentifiable None None None Stratum 21
Hittite Late Bronze Age Hattusas Num 13:29; Josh 1:4; 11:3 Bones of Indo-Europeans at the Amman Airport Structure; see Herr (1983) None None None Stratum 21

Canaanite

(Israelite)

Iron Age I-IIB Jerusalem/ Shechem/Tirzah/  Samaria Num 32:37; 2 Sam. 8:2-12; 1 Chr 18:2-11; 2 Sam. 10:1-19; 1 Chr 19:1-19; 2 Chr 14:25; Mesha Stele Omride sites north of Arnon Gorge; Finkelstein (2000); Finkelstein and Lipschits  (2010) Reservoir, Segments of Walls, Podium? Storage Jars and Iron II successors; see Herr (1999b) Female Plaque Strata 21-17 (intermittent)
Moabite Iron Age IIB-C Kir Hareseth/ Dibon Mesha Stele; 2 Kgs 1:1; 3:4-5; 13:20  Is 15:4; 16:8-9; Jer 48; Ray (2003) Dibon, Balu‘a, Khirbet el-Medeineh(s), al-Kerak, Madaba, Jalul Podium? Replastered reservoir Moabite  ceramic forms Possible Moabite figurine Stratum 17
Aram-Damascus Iron Age IIB Damascus 2 Kgs 10:32-33 Tall al- Rumaith None Stratum 17
Neo-Assyrian Iron Age IIB-C; ca. 733-625 BC Nimrud, Khorsabad, Nineveh ANET: 282; Bennett (1978; 1982); Bienkowski (2000); Daviau (1997; 2001); Oded (1970); Salje (2009); Weippert (1987) Assyrian influenced building plans at various sites Assyrian influenced local ware, figurines None Strata 16-17
Ammonite Iron Age IIB-C Rabbath-Ammon Jer 49:1-6; Herr (1999a); Younker (1994; 1999; 2003) Amman Citadel, Tall al-‘Umayri, Tall Jawa Podium? Ammonite ware and forms; Herr (2006) Ammonite Ostraca and Graffito; Horse and Rider figurines Stratum 16
Neo-Babylonian Iron Age III-Babylonian; ca. 604-540 BC Babylon Josephus Ant. 10.9.7; Weippert (1987) Nabonidas Relief at Sela’; Herr (1995) Stratum 16
Persian Iron Age III-Persian; 539-333 BC Persepolis, Susa with Amman as the provincial capital Neh 2:7-19; Ezra 4:10-20; 8:36; Bienkowski (2001; 2008); Ray (2006); Weippert (1987) See sites discussed in Ray (2006) Fish sauce plates Aramaic Ostraca Stratum 16
Ptolemaic/ Seleucid Hellenistic; 332-164 BC Alexandria, Antioch Josephus Ant. 13.15.4 ‘Araq al-Amir, Amman Acropolis Fortress or Podium, Houses, silos Ostracon, Rhodian Jar Date Stamp Stratum 15 Seleucid and Ptolemaic coins
Hasmonean Hellenistic; 129-63 BC Jerusalem Josephus Ant.13.9.1, 13.15.5 1 Macc 5:26, 36 Machaerus Hasmonean coins
Nabataean ca. 4 BC-AD 106 Petra Is 11:14; Ezek 25:9 Petra city and Necropolis Safaitic burial inscription Nabataean coins
Roman Roman; 63 BC-AD 330 Rome Pliny Natural Hist, Josephus Ant. 13.15.4; 15.8.5 Extremely rich architectural remains e.g.: the Decapolis cities and forts Temple, Inn with court-yard, Rolling Stone Tomb Abundant ceramic evidence,  with Terra sigillata ware Latin Seal Impression Esbus Coins; Roman Mile stones; stamped Terra sigillatas Strata 11-14
Roman coins
Intaglio depicting Zeus Triad
Fenestrated Bowl
Byzantine Byzantine; AD 330-664 Constantinople Scriptorum ecclesiasticorum, epistola of Pope Martin, Eusebius, Onomasticon Rich remains: churches and mosaics at Madaba, Um- al Rasas, Amman, Jerash Basilica-churches, reservoir, mosaics, farm houses at base of tell, cisterns Abundant ceramic evidence Madaba Mosaic Map, Church entablature with Greek inscription, Ostracon Strata 7-11
Byzantine coins, Bronze Crosses
Prometheus bone carving
Umayyad Early Islamic I; AD 661-750 Damascus Al-Tabari Desert “forts”, Amman Area N House, oven “Palace Ware” Mosaics at Umm al-Rasas and Ma'in, a possible Kufic inscription, Ostracon Stratum 6, coins, zoomorphic spout
‘Abbasid Early Islamic II; ca. AD 750-1000 Baghdad Yaqut; Grabar (1964); Whitcomb (2000) Humayma Area N House Red-painted and red clay cups and bowls and glazed ware Stratum 5A, coin
Fatimid Middle Islamic I; ca. AD 970-1200 Mahdia/Cairo Continuity of some forms Stratum 5B
Seljuk ca. AD 1071-1100 Isfahan Stratum 5B
Crusader Crusader;
AD 1099-1187
Jerusalem al Kerak, Oultrejourdain Cookpots and glazed imports Stratum 5B
Ayyubid Middle Islamic IIA; AD 1187-1260 Cairo/Damascus Ibn Shaddad: campsite for Saladin ‘Ajlun Castle Stratum 4, coins
Early Mamluk Middle Islamic IIB; AD 1260-1400 Cairo/Damascus AbÅ« al-Fidā’
Ibn Hijji; see also Walker (2001a; 2003; 2004; 2007; 2008; 2011) for entire period
Vaulted building complex: residence and garrison of Balqa governor, medieval village at base of tell Sugar pots; elephant ear handled cookpots; HMGP ware Inscribed bronze bowl Stratum 3A-B, coin hoard, bird figurine
Late Mamluk Late Islamic I; ca. AD 1400-1500 Cairo/Damascus Ibn Qadi Shuhba al-Qalqashandi and Al-Zāhirī Gradual abatement of village Glazed and painted ware Stratum 2, coins
Ottoman Late Islamic II-Modern;
AD 1517-1917
Istanbul/Damascus ‘Ajarma, ‘Adwān and Beni Sakhr tribes and Ottoman tax registers ("defters") al-Salt, forts,
Hejaz Railway and stations
Village at base of tell, foundation of Nabulsi qasr; cemetery (see Walker 2001b) Coarse wares; Walker (2009) Stratum 1, clay pipes,  inscribed rings
British Mandate AD 1917-1946 London British Mandate land registers Tegart Forts Nabulsi stables Stratum 1
Hashemite 1921-present Ma’an, Amman municipality development, post office, schools Stratum 1

Key

Column 1 Polity: Title or name of empire or power that either controlled or exerted influence over Hesban and the surrounding region
Column 2 Dates: Approximate dates of polity’s presence in the Levant, particularly in Trans-Jordan
Column 3 Epicenter: Seat of power; the capital city or cities of polity
Column 4 Written Sources Relevant historical and epigraphic sources to polity’s control or influence over Hesban and the surrounding region
Column 5 Archaeological Sources Archaeological evidence of polity’s regional presence (attested sites in Trans-Jordan)
Column 6 Architectural Evidence Archaeological remains relating to or contemporary with polity from Hisban or vicinity
Column 7 Ceramic Evidence Relevant ceramic evidence from Hisban or vicinity
Column 8 Iconographic Evidence Relevant iconographic and epigraphic evidence from Hisban or vicinity
Column 9 Other Evidence Relevant small finds from Hisban or vicinity

References

Bennett, Crystal- M.
     1978 Some Reflections on Neo-Assyrian Influence in Transjordan.  Pp. 164-71 in Archaeology in the Levant:  Essays for Kathleen Kenyon, eds. Roger Moorey and Peter Parr.  Warminster:  Aris and Phillips.
1982 Neo-Assyrian Influence in Transjordan.  Pp. 181-87 in Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan I, ed. Adnan Hadidi.  Amman: Department of Antiquities, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
Bienkowski, Piotr
2000 Transjordan and Assyria.  Pp. 44-58 in The Archaeology of Jordan and Beyond:  Essays in Honor of James A. Sauer, ed. Lawrence E. Stager, Joseph A. Greene, and Michael D. Coogan.  Studies in the Archaeology and History of the Levant 1.  Winona Lake:  Eisenbrauns.
2001 The Iron Age and Persian Periods in Jordan.  Pp. 265-74 in Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan VII.  Amman:  Department of Antiquities, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
2008 The Persian Period.  Pp. 335-62 in Jordan:  An Archaeological Reader, ed. Russell B. Adams.  London:  Equinox.
Daviau, P. M. Michèle
1997 Technological Change and Assyrian Influence at Tall Jawa, Jordan.  Bulletin of the Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies 32: 23-32.
2001 Assyrian Influence and Changing Technologies at Tall Jawa, Jordan.  Pp. 214-38 in The Land that I Will Show You:  Essays on the History and Archaeology of the Ancient Near East in Honour of J. Maxwell Miller, eds. J. Andrew Dearman and M. Patrick Graham.  Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 343.  Sheffield: Sheffield Academic.
Finkelstein, Israel
2000 Omride Architecture.  Zeitschrift des deutschen Palästina-Vereins 116: 114-38.
Finkelstein, Israel, and Lipschits, Oded
2010 Omride Architecture in Moab:  Jahaz and Ataroth.  Zeitschrift des deutschen Palästina-Vereins 126: 29-42.
Gilmour, Garth, and Kitchen, Kenneth A.
2012 Pharaoh Sety II and Egyptian Political Relations with Canaan at the End of the Late Bronze Age.  Israel Exploration Journal 62: 1-21.
Grabar, Oleg
1964 A Small Episode of Early ‘Abbāsid Times and Some Consequences.  Eretz-Israel 7:  44*-47* (L. A. Mayer Memorial Volume), eds. Michael Avi-Yonah; H. Z. Hirschberg; Benjamin Mazar; and Yigael Yadin.  Jerusalem:  Israel Exploration Society.
Hasel, Michael
1998 Domination and Resistance:  Egyptian Military Activity in the Southern Levant, ca. 1300-1185 B.C.  Probleme Der Agyptologie 11.  Leiden:  Brill.
Herr, Larry G.
1983 The Amman Airport Structure and the Geopolitics of Ancient Transjordan.  Biblical Archaeologist 46: 223-29.
1995 Wine Production in the Hills of Southern Ammon and the Founding of Tall al-‘Umayri in the Sixth Century BC.  Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 39: 121-25.
1999a The Ammonites in the Late Iron Age and Persian Period.  Pp. 219-37 in Ancient Ammon, eds. Burton MacDonald and Randall W. Younker.  Studies in the History and Culture of the Ancient Near East 17.  Leiden:  Brill.
1999b Tall al-‘Umayri and the Reubenite Hypothesis.  Eretz-Israel 26: 64*-77* (Frank Moore Cross Volume), eds. Baruch A. Levine; Philip J. King; Joseph Naveh and Ephraim Stern.  Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society.
2006 Black-Burnished Ammonite Bowls from Tall al’Umayri and Tall Hisban in Jordan.  Pp. 525-540 in “I Will Speak the Riddles of Ancient Times”:  Archaeological and Historical Studies in Honor of Amihai Mazar, eds. Aren M. Maeir and Pierre de Miroschedji.  Winona Lake:  Eisenbrauns.
Jahn, Brit
2007 The Migration and Sedentarization of the Amorites from the Point of View of the Settled Babylonian Population.  Pp. 193-209 in Representations of Political Power:  Case Histories from Times of Change and Dissolving Order in the Ancient Near East, eds. Marlies Heinz and Marian H. Feldman.  Winona Lake:  Eisenbrauns.
Kitchen, Kenneth A.
1982 Pharaoh Triumphant:  The Life and Times of Ramesses II, King of Egypt.  Warminster:  Aris & Phillips.
1992 The Egyptian Evidence on Ancient Jordan.  Pp. 21-34 in Early Edom and Moab:  The Beginning of the Iron Age in Southern Jordan, ed. Piotr Bienkowski.  Sheffield Archaeological Monographs, 7.  Sheffield:  J. R. Collis.
Luke, J. Tracy
1983 “Your Father Was an Amorite” (Ezek 16:3, 45):  An Essay on the Amorite Problem in OT Traditions.  Pp. 221-37 in The Quest for the Kingdom of God:  Studies in Honor of George E. Mendenhall, eds. Herbert B. Huffmon, Frank A. Spina, and Alberto R. W. Green.  Winona Lake:  Eisenbrauns.
Oded, Bustenay
1970 Observations on Methods of Assyrian Rule in Transjordania after the Palestinian Campaign of Tiglath-Pileser III.  Journal of Near Eastern Studies 29: 177-86.
1972 The Historical Background of the Syro-Ephraimite War Reconsidered.  Catholic Biblical Quarterly 34: 153-165.
Ray, Paul J.
2001 Hesban 6:  Tell Hesban and Vicinity in the Iron Age.  Berrien Springs:  Andrews University.
2003 The Moabites at Tall Hisban.  Pp. 202-18 in Wort und Stein:  Studien zur Theologie und Archäologie Festschrift für Udo Worschech, ed. Friedbert Ninow.  Beiträge zur Erforschung der Antiken Moabitis (Ard El-Kerak) 4.  Frankfurt am Main:  Peter Lang.
2006 Connectivity:  Transjordan during the Persian Period.  Pp. 75-92 in Connectivity in Antiquity:  Globalization as a Long-Term Historical Process, eds. Øystein S. LaBianca and Sandra Arnold Scham.  London:  Equinox.
Redford, Donald B.
1982a Contact between Egypt and Jordan in the New Kingdom:  Some Comments on Sources.  Pp. 115-19 in Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan I, ed. Adnan Hadidi.  Amman:  Department of Antiquities.
1982b A Bronze Age Itinerary in Transjordan (Nos. 89-101 of Thutmose III’s List of Asiatic Toponyms).  Journal for the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities 12: 55-74.
Salje, Beate
2009 The Kingdoms of Transjordan and the Assyrian Expansion.  Pp. 737-43 in Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan X, ed. Fawwaz al-Khraysheh. Amman:  Department of Antiquities.
Strange, John
2004 Jordan between Mesopotamia and Egypt in the Bronze and Iron Ages.  Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan VIII, ed. Fawwaz al-Khraysheh.  Amman:  Department of Antiquities.
Walker, Bethany J.
2001a Mamluk Administration of Transjordan: Recent Findings from Tall Hisban. al-‘Usur al-Wusta 13.2:  29-33.
2001b The Late Ottoman Cemetery in Field L, Tall Hisban. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 322: 1-19.
2003 Mamluk Investment in Southern Bilad al-Sham in the Fourteenth Century: The Case of Hisban. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 62:  241-61.
2004 Mamluk Investment in the Transjordan: A ‘Boom and Bust’ Economy.  Mamluk Studies Review 8: 119-47.
2007 Transformation of the Agricultural Economy of Late Mamluk Jordan. Mamluk Studies Review 11: 1-27.
2008 The Role of Agriculture in Mamluk-Jordanian Power Relations. Pp. 19-30 in le pouvoir à l’âge des sultanats dans le Bilâd al-Shâm, eds. Bethany J. Walker and Jean-François Salles.  Bulletin d’Études Orientales 57 Supplement.
2009 Identifying the Late Islamic Period Ceramically:  Preliminary Observations on Ottoman Wares from Central and Northern Jordan.  Pp. 37-65 in Reflections of Empire: Archaeological and Ethnographic Studies on the Pottery of the Ottoman Levant, ed. Bethany J. Walker. The Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 64.  Boston:  American Schools of Oriental Research.
2011 Jordan in the Late Middle Ages:  Transformation of the Mamluk Frontier.  Chicago:  Middle East Documentation Center.
Weippert, Manfred
1987 The Relations of the States East of the Jordan with the Mesopotamian Powers during the First Millennium BC.  Pp. 97-105 in Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan III, ed. Adnan Hadidi.  Amman:  Department of Antiquities.
Whitcomb, Donald
2000 Ḥesban, Amman, and Abbasid Archaeology in Jordan.  Pp. 505-15 in The Archaeology of Jordan and Beyond:  Essays in Honor of James A. Sauer, ed. Lawrence E. Stager, Joseph A. Greene, and Michael D. Coogan.  Studies in the Archaeology and History of the Levant 1.  Winona Lake:  Eisenbrauns.
Younker, Randall W.
1994 Ammonites.  Pp. 293-316 in Peoples of the Old Testament World, eds. Alfred J. Hoerth, Gerald L. Mattingly and Edwin M. Yamauchi.  Grand Rapids:  Baker.
1999 The Emergence of the Ammonites.  Pp. 189-218 in Ancient Ammon, eds. Burton MacDonald and Randall W. Younker.  Studies in the History and Culture of the Ancient Near East 17.  Leiden:  Brill.
2003 The Emergence of Ammon:  A View of the Rise of Iron Age Polities from the Other Side of the Jordan.  Pp. 153-76 in The Near East in the Southwest:  Essays in Honor of William G. Dever, ed. Beth Alpert Nakhai.  The Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 58.  Boston:  ASOR.

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